CHAPTER 61:01
MINES AND MINERALS

ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS

   SECTION

PART I
PRELIMINARY

   1.   Short title

   2.   Vesting of minerals

   3.   Interpretation

   4.   Service of documents

PART II
ADMINISTRATION

   5.   Commissioner for Mines and Minerals

   6.   Performance of Commissioner’s functions, etc.

   7.   Prohibition against disclosure of information

   8.   Officers holding certain shares to notify Minister

   9.   Indemnity

PART III
MINERAL RIGHTS

Division 1—General

   10.   Agreements with respect to the grant of Mineral Rights

   11.   Applications

   12.   Power of Minister to obtain information concerning applications, etc.

   13.   Restriction on persons to whom Mineral Right may be granted

   14.   Form of Mineral Right

   15.   Restriction on exercise of rights by holder of Mineral Right

Division 2—Reconnaissance Licences

   16.   Application for reconnaissance licence

   17.   Disposal of application for reconnaissance licence

   18.   Restriction on grant of reconnaissance licence

   19.   Notice of decision on application for reconnaissance licence

   20.   Contents of reconnaissance licence

   21.   Term of reconnaissance licence

   22.   Miscellaneous provisions concerning reconnaissance licences

   23.   Rights of holder of reconnaissance licence

   24.   Duties of holder of reconnaissance licence

Division 3—Exclusive Prospecting Licences

   25.   Application for exclusive prospecting licence

   26.   Disposal of application for exclusive prospecting licence

   27.   Restriction on grant of exclusive prospecting licence

   28.   Section 19 to apply to application for exclusive prospecting licence

   29.   Contents of exclusive prospecting licence

   30.   Programme of prospecting operations

   31.   Option

   32.   Term of exclusive prospecting licence

   33.   Miscellaneous provisions concerning exclusive prospecting licences

   34.   Rights of holder of exclusive prospecting licence

   35.   Duties of holder of exclusive prospecting licence

   36.   Variation, etc., of obligations

Division 4—Mining Licences

   37.   Application for mining licence

   38.   Disposal of application for mining licence

   39.   Restriction on grant of mining licence

   40.   Section 19 to apply to application for mining licence

   41.   Contents of mining licence

   42.   Term of mining licence

   43.   Rights of holder of mining licence

   44.   Duties of holder of mining licence

   45.   Use of wasteful practices

   46.   Cessation, etc., of production from mine

   47.   Power of Commissioner on cessation, etc.

   48.   Unit development

Division 5—Renewal and Amendment of Mineral Rights

   49.   Application for renewal of reconnaissance licence

   50.   Application for renewal of exclusive prospecting licence

   51.   Application for renewal of mining licence

   52.   Notice of disposal of application for renewal of Mineral Right

   53.   Licence to have effect pending disposal of application for renewal

   54.   Amendment of prospecting or mining programme

Division 6—Surrender, Cancellation and Suspension of Mineral Rights

   55.   Surrender

   56.   Effect of certificate of surrender

   57.   Suspension or cancellation of Mineral Right

Division 7—Transfers and Registration

   58.   Records

   59.   Interest in Mineral Right to be created by instrument in writing

   60.   Transfer of Mineral Right to be approved by Minister, etc.

   61.   Minister may require information

   62.   Evidentiary provision

   63.   Inspection of Register

   64.   Register may be rectified

   65.   Offences in relation to registration

Division 8—Miscellaneous Duties with respect to submitting Reports, etc.

   66.   First Schedule

Division 9—Miscellaneous

   67.   Application for inclusion of additional minerals in licence

   68.   Enlargement of prospecting area or mining area

   69.   Recovery of unexpended amounts

   70.   Control of company not to be given without consent of Minister

PART IV
NON-EXCLUSIVE PROSPECTING LICENCES AND CLAIMS

   71.   Definition

   72.   Restriction on exercise of rights by holder of non-exlusive prospecting licence or claim

   73.   Non-exclusive prospecting licence

   74.   Rights under non-exclusive prospecting licence

   75.   Term and renewal of non-exclusive prospecting licence

   76.   Pegging of claim

   77.   Restriction on registration of claim

   78.   Period of validity and renewal of claim

   79.   Rights and duties of holder of claim

   80.   Cancellation of claim

PART V
MINERAL PERMITS

   81.   Issue of mineral permit

   82.   Rights under mineral permit

   83.   Restriction on exercise of rights under mineral permit

   84.   Cancellation of mineral permit

   85.   Records of mineral permit

PART VI
FINANCIAL

   86.   Royalty on minerals obtained under mining licences, etc.

   87.   Royalty on minerals obtained under a claim

   88.   Prohibition on disposal of minerals

   89.   Remission of royalty, etc.

   90.   Annual charges in respect of Mineral Rights

   91.   Security for compliance

   92.   Minister may require information to be furnished

   93.   Recovery of royalty, etc.

PART VII
PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT

   94.   Protection of natural resources to be taken into account

   95.   Conditions for the protection of the environment, etc.

   96.   Rehabilitation of area damaged by prospecting or mining

   97.   Direction to comply with conditions of Mineral Right for protection of environment

PART VIII
RESERVED MINERALS

   98.   Definitions

   99.   Possession, etc., of reserved minerals

   100.   Reserved minerals licence

   101.   Offences

PART IX
RESTRICTIONS AND SURFACE RIGHTS

   102.   Definition

   103.   Restrictions on exercise of rights in relation to certain land

   104.   Right to graze stock, etc.

   105.   Compensation for disturbance of rights, etc.

   106.   Notice of intention to commence reconnaissance or prospecting operations, etc.

PART X
PETROLEUM

   107.-109.   Repealed by 2 of 1983.

PART XI
DISPUTES

   110.   Commissioner may decide disputes

   111.   Enforcement of Commissioner’s decrees and orders

   112.   Appeal to Minister

   113.   Jurisdiction of courts excluded

   114.   Regulations with respect to proceedings

PART XII
MISCELLANEOUS

   115.   Right to take building and industrial minerals

   116.   Scientific investigation

   117.   Power of Commissioner and authorized officers

   118.   Removal of minerals

   119.   Permit to export minerals

   120.   Acquisition of land

   121.   Production of books, etc.

   122.   Identity, of persons exercising certain rights, to be established

   123.   Removal of property by holder of Mineral Right

   124.   Removal and sale of property

   125.   Obstruction of holder of Mineral Right, etc.

   126.   Offence committed by body corporate

   127.   Miscellaneous offences

PART XIII
REGULATIONS

   128.   Regulations

PART XIV
TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS AND SAVINGS

   129.   Transitional provisions and savings

   130.   Repeals

       First Schedule

       Second Schedule

INDEX TO SUBSIDIARY LEGISLATION

Under Section 128

      Mines and Minerals (Claims) Regulations

      Mines and Minerals (Disputes) Regulations

      Mines and Minerals (Mineral Rights) Regulations

      Mines and Minerals (Miscellaneous Fees) Regulations

      Mines and Minerals (Non-Exclusive Prospecting Licence) Regulations

      Mines Permits (Prescribed Minerals) Regulations

      Mines and Minerals (Prescribed Operations) Regulations

      Mines and Minerals (Public Purposes) (Prescription) Regulations

      Mines and Minerals (Reserved Minerals) Regulations

      Mines and Minerals (Royalty) Regulations

      Mining (Safety) Regulations

1 of 1981
2 of 1983
G.N. 31/1981

An Act to make provision with respect to searching for and mining minerals, to repeal the Mining Act and certain other Acts and to provide for matters connected therewith and incidental thereto

[1ST JUNE 1981]

PART I
PRELIMINARY

1.   Short title

   This Act may be cited as the Mines and Minerals Act.

2.   Vesting of minerals, etc.

   (1) The entire property in, and control over, minerals in land in Malawi are vested in the President on behalf of the people of Malawi; but without prejudice to the exercise of any right under or pursuant to this Act.

   (2) Nothing in subsection (1) shall operate so as to affect any interest of a person in earth, clay, granite, limestone, marble, sand, stone or other similar substance upon or in land, being an interest created by virtue of any Certificate of Claim or ownership of land or other disposition made by or on behalf of the British Crown.

   (3) Subject to sections 115 and 116, no person shall carry on in Malawi reconnaissance, prospecting or mining operations, except under and in accordance with a Mineral Right, a non-exclusive prospecting licence, a claim or a mineral permit.

   (4) Any person who contravenes subsection (3) is guilty of an offence and liable on conviction—

   (a)   in the case of an individual, to a fine of one thousand Kwacha or to imprisonment for a term of two years, or to both; or

   (b)   in the case of a body corporate, to a fine of twenty thousand Kwacha.

3.   Interpretation

   (1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires—

   “authorized officer”, in relation to any provision of this Act, means a person designated as such under section 6 (2) for the purposes of that provision;

   “body corporate” means a company or a corporation;

   “building and industrial minerals” means basalt, clay, dolomite, granite, gravel, gypsum, laterite, limestone, marble, sand, sandstone, or salt, used for agricultural, building, roadmaking or industrial purposes in Malawi, and includes such other minerals as may be prescribed;

   “claim” means a claim registered under Part IV;

   “claim area” means an area of land subject to a claim;

   “Commissioner” means the Commissioner for Mines and Minerals appointed pursuant to section 5;

   “company” means a corporate body incorporated under the Companies Act;

   “conditions” includes terms, limitations and stipulations;

   “conserve” means, in relation to natural resources, to protect, improve and use natural resources in accordance with principles that will ensure the highest sustainable benefit in terms of economic, social, cultural and aesthetic values;

   “corporation” means a corporate body incorporated in or outside Malawi, whether by Act or otherwise, but does not include a company;

   “customary land” has the meaning assigned by the Land Act:

   “drilling” means the perforation of the earth’s surface otherwise than by pitting, trenching or sinking a shaft, whether the hole is vertical, inclined or horizontal, and includes all operations for preventing the collapse of the sides of the hole or for preventing the hole from becoming filled with extraneous matter (including water);

   “exclusive prospecting licence” means a licence granted under section 26;

   “holder” means—

   (a)   in relation to a Mineral Right, the person whose name is for the time being recorded pursuant to section 58 or 60 as being the holder of the Minister Right; or

   (b)   in relation to a claim, the person whose name is for the time being registered pursuant to section 76;

   “in default” means in breach of any provision of this Act or of any condition of a Mineral Right, a non-exclusive prospecting licence or a claim;

   “land” includes land beneath water;

   “lawful occupier”, in relation to any customary land, includes such persons, or such class of persons, as may be prescribed;

   “mine”, when used as a noun, means any place, excavation or working in or on which any operation connected with mining is carried on, together with all buildings, premises, erections and appliances belonging or appertaining thereto, above or below the ground, for the purpose of winning, treating or preparing minerals, obtaining or extracting any mineral or metal by any mode or method or for the purpose of dressing mineral ores;

   “mine”, when used as a verb, means intentionally to win minerals and includes any operations directly or indirectly necessary for or incidental to mining operations;

   “mineral” means any substance, whether in solid, liquid or gaseous form, occurring naturally in or on the earth, formed by or subject to a geological process, but does not include—

   (a)   water, not being water taken from a borehole, well, excavation or natural saltpan for the extraction therefrom of a substance in solution therein and of commercial value; or

   (b)   soil, not being soil taken from the earth for the extraction therefrom of a substance of commercial value contained therein or for the manufacture therefrom of a product of commercial value; or

   (c)   petroleum as defined in section 3 of the Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Act;

   “mineral permit” means a permit issued under section 81;

   “Mineral Right” means a reconnaissance licence, an exclusive prospecting licence or a mining licence;

   “mining area” means an area of land subject to a mining licence;

   “mining licence” means a licence granted under section 38;

   “mining operation” means operations carried out in the course of mining;

   “monument” has the meaning assigned by the Monuments Act;

   “non-exclusive prospecting licence” means a licence issued under section 73;

   “private land” has the meaning assigned by the Land Act;

   “prospect” means intentionally to search for minerals and includes the determination of their extent and economic value;

   “prospecting area” means the area of land subject to an exclusive prospecting licence;

   “prospecting operations” means operations carried out in the course of prospecting;

   “public land” has the meaning assigned by the Land Act;

   “radioactive mineral” means a mineral which contains by weight at least one-twentieth of one per cent (0.05 per cent) of uranium or thorium or any combination thereof, and includes—

   (a)   monazite sand and other ore containing thorium; and

   (b)   carnotite, pitchblende and other ore containing uranium;

   “reconnaissance area” means an area of land subject to a reconnaissance licence;

   “reconnaissance licence” means a licence granted under section 17;

   “reconnaissance operations” means the search for minerals by geophysical surveys, geochemical surveys and photogeological surveys or other remote sensing techniques and surface geology in connexion therewith;

   “Register” means the Register referred to in section 58;

   “the Regulations” means regulations made under section 128;

   “relic” has the meaning assigned by the Monuments Act;

   “salt” means—

   (a)   sodium chloride or sodium carbonate, occurring naturally, whether individually or as a mixture;

   (b)   any naturally occurring salt or mixture of salts, soluble in water, which may be prescribed;

   “this Act” includes the Regulations;

   “working for profit” means producing a mineral for use or sale.

   (2) In this Act, a reference to minerals in any land includes a reference to minerals on or under the land.

   (3) In this Act—

   (a)   a reference to the conditions of a Mineral Right is a reference to the conditions on which the Mineral Right is granted, as from time to time varied; and

   (b)   a reference to the conditions of a claim is a reference to the conditions on which the claim is, for the time being, registered.

   (4) In this Act, a reference to a programme of reconnaissance operations, prospecting operations, or mining operations, in relation to the holder of a Mineral Right, is a reference to operations of that kind which the holder is, from time to time, required to carry on.

4.   Service of documents

   (1) A document or notice required or permitted to be served on, or given to, a person under or for the purposes of this Act, may be served or given—

   (a)   in the case of an individual (other than the Minister or the Commissioner), by serving it personally upon the individual or by sending it by post to him at his usual or last known place of abode or business or at the address kept pursuant to section 66;

   (b)   in the case of the Minister or the Commissioner, in the manner prescribed;

   (c)   in the case of a body corporate—

      (i)   by leaving it at the registered or principal office of the body corporate with some individual apparently employed by the body corporate and apparently not less than sixteen years of age;

      (ii)   by sending it by post to the body corporate at the registered or principal office of the body corporate; or

      (iii)   by delivering it to some individual in the employment or acting on behalf of the body corporate who is authorized by the body corporate, or agrees, to accept service of or to receive the document or any document.

   (2) For the purposes of subsection (1) (c), the principal office of a body corporate incorporated outside Malawi is its principal office within Malawi or the address kept pursuant to section 66.

   (3) Where a person has more than one place of abode or business a document or notice may be served on, or given to, the person under this section at any of those places.

   (4) Where a document or notice is sent by post pursuant to this section, service or notice is deemed to have been effected or given under this section, unless the contrary is proved, at the time at which the document or notice would be delivered in the ordinary course of post.

PART II
ADMINISTRATION

5.   Commissioner for Mines and Minerals

   The Minister may appoint a person to be the Commissioner for Mines and Minerals, and such other persons to be officers as he may consider necessary for the administration of this Act.

6.   Performance of Commissioner’s functions, etc.

   (1) Anything required or permitted by or under this Act to be done by the Commissioner may be done by any public officer who is authorized, either specially or generally, in that behalf in writing by the Commissioner, and for the purpose of doing so that officer is deemed to be the Commissioner.

   (2) The Commissioner may designate any public officer to be an authorized officer for the purposes of this Act or any provision of this Act.

7.   Prohibition against disclosure of information

   (1) Subject to subsection (2), no information furnished, or information in a report submitted, pursuant to section 66 by the holder of a Mineral Right, shall, for as long as the Mineral Right has effect, be disclosed, except with the consent of the holder of the Mineral Right.

   (2) Nothing in subsection (1) operates to prevent the disclosure of information where the disclosure is made—

   (a)   for or in connexion with the administration of this Act;

   (b)   for the purpose of any legal proceedings;

   (c)   for the purpose of any investigation or inquiry conducted under this Act;

   (d)   to any consultant to the Government, or to any public officer, who is approved by the Commissioner as a proper person to receive the information.

   (3) Any person who contravenes subsection (1) is guilty of an offence and liable on conviction to a fine of one thousand Kwacha or to imprisonment for a term of two years, or to both.

8.   Officers holding certain shares to notify Minister

   (1) In this section, “officer” means a public officer for the time being engaged in the administration of this Act.

   (2) Where an officer, either directly or indirectly, holds any shares in a body corporate which is the holder of a Mineral Right, he shall, without delay, notify the Minister in writing of that fact giving in the notice particulars of the shares held by him.

   (3) For the purposes of this section, the holding by the wife or husband (not herself or himself being an officer) of an officer of any shares of the kind referred to in subsection (2), is deemed to be a holding by the officer of the shares.

   (4) This section applies with respect to shares whether acquired before or after the commencement of this Act, or whether acquired by a person before he became an officer.

9.   Indemnity

   A public officer does not incur any liability in respect of the exercise or performance, or purported exercise or performance, by him in good faith of any function under and for the purposes of this Act.

PART III
MINERAL RIGHTS

Division 1—General

10.   Agreements with respect to the grant of Mineral Rights

   The Minister, on behalf of the Republic, may enter into an agreement (not inconsistent with this Act) with any person with respect to all or any of the following matters, namely—

   (a)   the grant to that person, or to any person (including anybody corporate to be formed) identified in the agreement, of a Mineral Right on the conditions (if any) specified in the agreement;

   (b)   conditions or the conditions to be included in the Mineral Right as granted or renewed; or

   (c)   any matter incidental to or connected with the foregoing.

11.   Applications

   (1) An application under this Part—

   (a)   shall be made to the Minister, or, if so prescribed, to the Commissioner;

   (b)   shall be in or to the effect of a form approved by the Minister;

   (c)   shall be accompanied by the prescribed fee; and

   (d)   may be withdrawn by the applicant giving to the Minister or, in the case of an application made to the Commissioner, to the Commissioner a notice of withdrawal.

   (2) Any application under this Part required to be made to the Minister shall be made to him through the Commissioner.

   (3) The Minister may, by notice served on an applicant for the grant or renewal of a Mineral Right, or for the enlargement of a prospecting area or a mining area under section 68, direct the applicant to publish details of his application at a time or times and in the manner specified in the notice, or give details of his application to such persons and in a manner specified in the notice.

12.   Power of Minister to obtain information concerning applications, etc.

   (1) The Minister may, by notice served on an applicant for the grant of a Mineral Right, require the applicant to furnish him, within such reasonable, time as is specified in the notice,—

   (a)   with such further information relevant to the application as may be described in the notice; and

   (b)   if the applicant, or any of the applicants, is a body corporate, with such information as may be described in the notice to enable him to ascertain to what extent the controlling power in the direction of the affairs of the body corporate is a corporation incorporated outside Malawi, or an individual or individuals resident outside Malawi.

   (2) To enable him to dispose of an application for the grant of a Mineral Right, the Minister—

   (a)   may cause such investigations, negotiations or consultations to be carried on as he considers necessary; and

   (b)   may, by notice served on the applicant for the grant of the Mineral Right, require the applicant to furnish him, within such reasonable time as is specified in the notice, with such proposals, by way of alteration to or in addition to any proposals in the application, as the Minister specifies in the notice.

13.   Restriction on persons to whom Mineral Right may be granted

   No Mineral Right—

   (a)   shall be granted to an individual unless he is a citizen of Malawi or has been ordinarily resident in Malawi during the period of four years immediately preceding the date on which his application for the grant of a Mineral Right is made;

   (b)   being a reconnaissance licence or an exclusive prospecting licence, shall be granted to a body corporate unless the body corporate is—

      (i)   a company;

      (ii)   a corporation incorporated in Malawi; or

      (iii)   a corporation (not being a corporation of a kind referred to in subparagraph (ii)) approved by the Minister; or

   (c)   being a mining licence, shall be granted to a body corporate unless the body corporate is—

      (i)   a company; or

      (ii)   a corporation incorporated in Malawi.

14.   Form of Mineral Right

   A Mineral Right shall be in accordance with such form as the Minister approves.

15.   Restriction on exercise of rights by holder of Mineral Right

   Where the doing of any act is regulated or prohibited by a written law (other than this Act), nothing in this Act shall be construed as authorizing the holder of a Mineral Right to do the Act—

   (a)   otherwise than in accordance with the written law; and

   (b)   without first obtaining the licence, permit, authority, or other instrument (if any), required under the written law for the doing of the act.

Division 2—Reconnaissance Licences

16.   Application for reconnaissance licence

   An application for the grant of a reconnaissance licence—

   (a)   shall give in respect of the person or, if there is more than one person, of each person making the application—

      (i)   in the case of an individual, his full name and nationality; or

      (ii)   in the case of a body corporate, its name and place of incorporation, the names and nationality of the directors or equivalent officers and, if the body corporate has a share capital, the name of any person who is the beneficial owner of more than five per cent of the issued share capital;

   (b)   shall be accompanied by a plan of the area over which the licence is sought, drawn in such manner and showing such particulars as the Minister may require;

   (c)   shall identify the minerals in respect of which the licence is sought;

   (d)   shall be accompanied by a statement giving particulars of the financial and technical resources available to the applicant for the licence;

   (e)   shall give or be accompanied by a statement giving particulars of the programme of reconnaissance operations proposed to be carried out in the area of land over which the licence is sought, an estimate of the cost of carrying out the programme and of the period required for completion of the programme, and an estimate of any significant effect which the carrying out of the programme would be likely to have on the environment or on any monument or relic in the area over which the licence is sought; and

   (f)   may set out any other matter which the applicant wishes the Minister to consider.

17.   Disposal of application for reconnaissance licence

   (1) Subject to this Act, on application duly made, the Minister may grant on such conditions as he may determine, or refuse to grant, a reconnaissance licence over any area of land.

   (2) The area of land over which a reconnaissance licence is granted shall be of such shape, orientation and dimensions, as may be prescribed in, or as may be determined in accordance with, the Regulations.

18.   Restriction on grant of reconnaissance licence

   (1) No reconnaissance licence shall be granted over an area of land in, or which constitutes,—

   (a)   a prospecting area if a person, other than the person to whom the reconnaissance licence would be granted, is the holder of an exclusive prospecting licence over the area in respect of a mineral of which the reconnaissance licence would relate;

   (b)   a mining area; or

   (c)   a claim area.

   (2) Where an area of land is subject to a reconnaissance licence which, pursuant to section 20 (4), gives to the holder of the licence an exclusive right to carry on reconnaissance operations in that area, no other reconnaissance licence shall be granted over land in, or which constitutes, that area in respect of any mineral to which that exclusive right relates.

   (3) Where it is necessary to fly over any land for the purpose of the exercise of any right under section 23, nothing in this section operates to prevent any such flight from being undertaken.

19.   Notice of decision on application for reconnaissance licence

   (1) The Minister shall give notice to an applicant for the grant of a reconnaissance licence of his decision on the application and, if he is prepared to grant the licence, he shall give in the notice details of the proposed licence.

   (2) If an applicant, within sixty days after he is given notice pursuant to subsection (1) that the Minister is prepared to grant a reconnaissance licence, fails to give notice to the Minister of his willingness to accept the proposed licence, his application lapses.

20.   Contents of reconnaissance licence

   (1) A reconnaissance licence shall—

   (a)   state the date of the grant of the licence and the period for which it is granted;

   (b)   include a description and, if the Minister so directs, a plan of the area of land over which it is granted;

   (c)   state the conditions on which it is granted; and

   (d)   identify any mineral to which the licence relates.

   (2) Subject to any relevant agreement of a kind referred to in section 10, there may be included in, or in a statement appended to, a reconnaissance licence either or both of the following conditions, namely—

   (a)   a condition that in, or in relation to, the reconnaissance area, the holder of the licence will, during a specified period, carry out the programme of reconnaissance operations and expend the amounts specified in the licence; or

   (b)   a condition requiring the holder of the licence, in respect of any period and in the manner specified, to submit to the Minister acceptable proposals for the carrying out of a programme of reconnaissance operations and the expenditure of amounts in, or in relation to, the reconnaissance area during that period.

   (3) Where the Minister is satisfied that an initial period is required to make the necessary preparations to carry on reconnaissance operations, he may specify in a reconnaissance licence a period (not exceeding three months) as the preparation period.

   (4) A reconnaissance licence may, in respect of any mineral to which the licence relates, confer on the holder of the licence the exclusive right to carry on reconnaissance operations in the reconnaissance area.

21.   Term of reconnaissance licence

   (1) The term of a reconnaissance licence is the period for which the licence is granted, not exceeding twelve months, stated in the licence, and any preparation period specified in the licence pursuant to section 20 (3).

   (2) The term of a reconnaissance licence commences on and includes the date on which the licence is granted, as stated in the licence.

22.   Miscellaneous provisions concerning reconnaissance licences

   (1) Subject to this section, where the holder of a reconnaissance licence applies for the grant of an exclusive prospecting licence over an area of land in the reconnaissance area and the application has not been finally dealt with before the date on which the reconnaissance licence would, but for this subsection, cease to have effect, the reconnaissance licence continues to have effect over the area of land until—

   (a)   notice is given to the applicant pursuant to section 28 of the refusal to grant the exclusive prospecting licence; or

   (b)   as the case may be, the date of the grant of the exclusive prospecting licence, as stated in the exclusive prospecting licence.

   (2) Where an exclusive prospecting licence is granted to the holder of a reconnaissance licence, the land subject to that exclusive prospecting licence ceases to be subject to that reconnaissance licence, but no other reconnaissance licence is affected by the grant of that exclusive prospecting licence.

   (3) Where an area of land becomes a mining area, it ceases to be subject to any reconnaissance licence to which it was subject immediately before becoming a mining area.

   (4) Subsection (1) shall not have effect—

   (a)   to prevent the cancellation under this Act of a reconnaissance licence; or

   (b)   if an application for the grant of an exclusive prospecting licence is withdrawn.

23.   Rights of holder of reconnaissance licence

   (1) Subject to this Act and the conditions of the licence, a reconnaissance licence, while it has effect, confers on the holder of the licence the right to carry on reconnaissance operations in or over the reconnaissance area, and for the purpose of the exercise of that right the holder may, subject to this Act and the conditions of the licence, in particular, either himself, or by way of employees or agents, enter the reconnaissance area, and erect camps and temporary buildings, or erect installations in any waters forming part of the reconnaissance area.

   (2) The holder of a reconnaissance licence shall not engage in drilling, excavation or other subsurface techniques, except where and to the extent he is authorized by his licence to use any of those techniques.

24.   Duties of holder of reconnaissance licence

   (1) The holder of a reconnaissance licence—

   (a)   shall, subject to subsection (2), carry on reconnaissance operations in accordance with his programme of reconnaissance operations;

   (b)   shall, subject to subsection (2), expend in, or in relation to, the reconnaissance area an amount not less than the amount required by the licence or otherwise to be so expended; and

   (c)   shall carry on reconnaissance operations in accordance with the requirements of this Act.

   (2) The Minister may, on application made to him by the holder of a reconnaissance licence, limit, reduce, vary or suspend any obligation arising pursuant to subsection (1) (a) or (b) either conditionally or unconditionally.

Division 3—Exclusive Prospecting Licences

25.   Application for exclusive prospecting licence

   An application for the grant of an exclusive prospecting licence—

   (a)   shall give information of the kind referred to in section 16 (a), and shall give or be accompanied by a statement giving particulars of the kind referred to in section 16 (d)

   (b)   shall identify the minerals in respect of which the licence is sought;

   (c)   shall be accompanied by a plan of the kind referred to in section 16 (b);

   (d)   shall state the period for which the licence is sought;

   (e)   shall give or be accompanied by a statement giving particulars of the programme of prospecting operations proposed to be carried out in the area of land over which the licence is sought and an estimate of the cost of carrying out the programme, and an estimate of any significant effect which the carrying out of the programme would be likely to have on the environment and on any monument or relic in the area over which the licence is sought;

   (f)   shall give or be accompanied by a statement giving particulars of the applicant’s proposals with respect to the employment and training of citizens of Malawi;

   (g)   shall be accompanied by a statement giving particulars of expected infrastructure requirements; and

   (h)   may set out any other matter which the applicant wishes the Minister to consider.

26.   Disposal of application for exclusive prospecting licence

   (1) Subject to this Act and to any relevant agreement of a kind referred to in section 10, on application duly made, the Minister may grant on such conditions as he may determine, or refuse to grant, an exclusive prospecting licence over any area of land.

   (2) The area of land over which an exclusive prospecting licence is granted shall be of such shape, orientation and dimensions as may be prescribed in, or as may be determined in accordance with, the Regulations.

27.   Restriction on grant of exclusive prospecting licence

   (1) No exclusive prospecting licence shall be granted over an area of land in, or which constitutes—

   (a)   a mining area; or

   (b)   a claim area.

   (2) Where an area of land is subject to an exclusive prospecting licence, no other exclusive prospecting licence shall be granted over land in, or which constitutes, that area in respect of any mineral to which the subsisting exclusive prospecting licence relates.

   (3) Where an area of land is subject to a reconnaissance licence which gives, pursuant to section 20 (4), to the holder of the licence an exclusive right to carry on reconnaissance operations in respect of the land, an exclusive prospecting licence shall not be granted in respect of any mineral to which that exclusive right relates, over land in, or which constitutes, that area, to a person other than the holder of the reconnaissance licence.

   (4) No exclusive prospecting licence shall be granted to an applicant unless—

   (a)   the applicant has adequate financial resources, technical competence and experience to carry on effective prospecting operations;

   (b)   the programme of proposed prospecting operations is adequate;

   (c)   the applicant’s proposals for the employment and training of citizens of Malawi are adequate; and

   (d)   the applicant is not in default.

28.   Section 19 to apply to application for exclusive prospecting licence

   The provisions of section 19 apply in relation to an application for the grant of an exclusive prospecting licence as they apply in relation to an application for the grant of a reconnaissance licence.

29.   Contents of exclusive prospecting licence

   (1) An exclusive prospecting licence shall—

   (a)   state the date of the grant of the licence and the period for which it is granted;

   (b)   identify the mineral in respect of which it is granted;

   (c)   include a description and, if the Minister so directs, a plan of the area of land over which it is granted; and

   (d)   state the conditions on which it is granted.

   (2) Where the Minister is satisfied that an initial period is required to make the necessary preparations to carry on prospecting operations he may, in an exclusive prospecting licence, specify a period (not exceeding three months) as the preparation period.

   (3) There shall be appended to an exclusive prospecting licence a programme for the employment and training of citizens of Malawi.

30.   Programme prospecting operations

   (1) In addition to conditions included in an exclusive prospecting licence under section 29 (1), or on any extension of the licence under section 50,—

   (a)   the licence is subject to the condition that not later than one month before the anniversary in any year of the grant of the licence, the holder of the licence shall submit to the Minister in detail an adequate programme with respect to work and expenditure to be carried out or made in the year of the licence immediately following; and

   (b)   the programme so submitted is deemed to constitute a requirement of the licence with respect to prospecting operations and expenditure.

   (2) The requirement in subsection (1) (a) that the programme submitted shall be adequate is deemed to have been met where the programme submitted satisfies the requirements (if any) with respect to work and expenditure contained in a relevant agreement of a kind referred to in section 10.

31.   Option

   There may be included in an exclusive prospecting licence provision with respect to the exercise, by the Republic or a person identified in the licence, of an option to acquire on stipulated terms, or on terms to be agreed, an interest in any mining venture which may be carried on in relation to land in, or which constitutes, the prospecting area.

32.   Term of exclusive prospecting licence

   (1) The term of an exclusive prospecting licence is the period for which the licence is granted, not exceeding three years, stated in the licence, and any preparation period specified in the licence pursuant to section 29 (2).

   (2) The term of an exclusive prospecting licence commences on and includes the date of the grant of the licence, as stated in the licence.

33.   Miscellaneous provisions concerning exclusive prospecting licences

   (1) Subject to this section, where the holder of an exclusive prospecting licence applies for the grant of a mining licence over any area of land in, or which constitutes, the prospecting area, and the application has not been finally dealt with before the date on which the exclusive prospecting licence would, but for this subsection, cease to have effect, the exclusive prospecting licence continues to have effect over that area of land until—

   (a)   notice is given to the applicant pursuant to section 40 of the refusal to grant the mining licence; or

   (b)   as the case may be, the date of the grant of the mining licence, as stated in the mining licence.

   (2) Where a mining licence is granted over any area of land wholly or partly in one, or more than one, prospecting area—

   (a)   the exclusive prospecting licence held by the person to whom the mining licence is granted ceases to have effect in the mining area; and

   (b)   the exclusive prospecting licence held by any other person—

      (i)   ceases to have effect if the prospecting area covered by the licence is within, or is constituted by the same area of land as, the mining area; or

      (ii)   as the case may be, continues to have effect only in relation to land outside the mining area.

   (3) Subsection (1) shall not have effect—

   (a)   to prevent the cancellation under this Act of an exclusive prospecting licence; or

   (b)   if an application for the grant of a mining licence is withdrawn.

   (4) An exclusive prospecting licence may continue to have effect pursuant to this section notwithstanding that the prospecting area has ceased to be in the shape or to have the dimensions prescribed in respect of prospecting areas or, as the case may be, approved in respect of that area.

34.   Rights of holder of exclusive prospecting licence

   Subject to this Act and the conditions of the licence, an exclusive prospecting licence, while it has effect, confers on the holder of the licence the exclusive right to carry on prospecting operations in the prospecting area for the mineral to which the licence relates, and for the purpose of the exercise of that right the holder may, subject to this Act and the conditions of the licence, in particular, either himself, or by way of his employees or agents, enter the prospecting area and erect camps and temporary buildings, or erect installations in any waters forming part of the prospecting area.

35.   Duties of holder of exclusive prospecting licence

   The holder of an exclusive prospecting licence—

   (a)   shall commence prospecting operations within three months of the date of the grant of the licence, as stated in the licence;

   (b)   shall, subject to sections 36 and 54, carry on prospecting operations in accordance with his programme of prospecting operations;

   (c)   shall give to the Minister notice of the discovery—

      (i)   of any mineral to which his licence relates of possible commercial value; and

      (ii)   of any mineral deposit of possible commercial value, within thirty days of the discovery;

   (d)   shall, subject to section 36, expend in, or in relation to, the prospecting area an amount not less than the amount required by the licence or otherwise to be so expended;

   (e)   shall, subject to section 36, employ and train citizens of Malawi in accordance with the proposals in that connexion particulars of which have been given in or appended to the licence; and

   (f)   shall carry on prospecting operations in accordance with the requirements of this Act.

36.   Variation, etc., of obligations

   (1) The Minister may, on application made to him by the holder of an exclusive prospecting licence, limit, reduce, vary or suspend any obligation arising pursuant to section 35 (b), (d) or (e) either conditionally or unconditionally.

   (2) To enable him to dispose of an application under subsection (1) the Minister may, by notice served on the applicant, require the applicant to furnish him, within such reasonable time as is specified in the notice, with such information relevant to the application as may be described in the notice.

Division 4—Mining Licences

37.   Application for mining licence

   (1) An application for the grant of a mining licence may be made by the holder of an exclusive prospecting licence or by a person who is not such a holder.

   (2) Where an application for the grant of a mining licence is made by the holder of an exclusive prospecting licence, the application shall be made—

   (a)   only in respect of land subject to the exclusive prospecting licence;

   (b)   only if the holder has given notice to the Minister of the discovery in commercial quantities of any mineral to which his licence relates; and

   (c)   not later than two months, or such further period as the Minister may allow, after that notice was given to the Minister.

   (3) An application for the grant of a mining licence—

   (a)   shall give information of the kind referred to in section 16 (a);

   (b)   shall identify the minerals which it is proposed to mine;

   (c)   shall state the number of the exclusive prospecting licence (if any) held by the applicant and shall give details of any exclusive prospecting licence held by the applicant, or by any person controlling, controlled by or under joint or common control with, the applicant, during the preceding four years;

   (d)   shall be accompanied by a plan of the area over which the licence is sought drawn in such manner as the Minister may require and showing—

      (i)   the name of each lawful occupier of a holding in, or partly in, that area and, in the case of more than one such holding, the boundaries within that area of each such holding; and

      (ii)   such other particulars as the Minister may require;

   (e)   shall state the period for which the licence is sought;

   (f)   shall give or be accompanied by a statement giving details of the mineral deposits in the area of land over which the licence is sought, including details of all known minerals proved, estimated or inferred, ore reserves and mining conditions;

   (g)   shall be accompanied by a technological report on mining and treatment possibilities and the intention of the applicant in relation thereto;

   (h)   shall give or be accompanied by a statement giving particulars of the programme of proposed mining operations including a statement of—

      (i)   the estimated date by which the applicant intends to work for profit;

      (ii)   the estimated capacity of production and scale of operations;

      (iii)   the estimated overall recovery of ore and mineral products;

      (iv)   the nature of the products;

      (v)   proposals for the prevention of pollution, the treatment of wastes, the safeguarding of natural resources, the progressive reclamation and rehabilitation of land disturbed by mining and for the minimization of the effects of mining on surface water and ground water and on adjoining or neighbouring lands;

      (vi)   the residual effects on the environment of the mining operations and proposals for their minimization;

      (vii)   any particular risks (whether to health or otherwise) involved in mining the mineral, and proposals for their control or elimination; and

      (viii)   any significant effect which the carrying out of the programme would be likely to have on the environment and on any monument or relic in the area over which the licence is sought and proposals for eliminating or controlling that effect;

   (i)   shall give or be accompanied by a statement giving a detailed forecast of capital investment, operating costs and revenues and the anticipated type and source of financing;

   (j)   shall be accompanied by a report on the goods and services required for the mining operations which can be obtained within Malawi and the applicant’s proposals with respect to the procurement of those goods and services;

   (k)   shall give or be accompanied by a statement giving particulars of the applicant’s proposals with respect to the employment and training of citizens of Malawi;

   (l)   shall be accompanied by a statement giving particulars of expected infrastructure requirements; and

   (m)   may set out any other matter which the applicant wishes the Minister to consider.

   (4) Where an application for the grant of a mining licence is made by a person who is not the holder of an exclusive prospecting licence the application shall, in addition to the matter referred to in subsection (3), give or be accompanied by a statement giving particulars of the financial and technical resources available to the applicant for the licence.

38.   Disposal of application for mining licence

   (1) Subject to this section, section 39 and to any relevant agreement of a kind referred to in section 10, on application duly made by the holder of an exclusive prospecting licence the Minister shall grant, on such conditions as he may determine, the mining licence applied for.

   (2) Subject to this section and section 39, on application duly made by a person who is not the holder of an exclusive prospecting licence, the Minister may grant, on such conditions as he may determine, or refuse to grant, the mining licence applied for.

   (3) To enable him to dispose of an application for the grant of a mining licence, the Minister may, by notice given to the applicant, require the applicant, at his own expense, to commission an independent study by consultants acceptable to the Minister for the purpose of—

   (a)   assessing the feasibility of the programme of mining operations proposed in the application; or

   (b)   assessing, or making recommendations about, such other matters arising out of, or connected with, the application, as the Minister may specify in the notice.

39.   Restriction on grant of mining licence

   (1) No mining licence shall be granted over an area of land in, or which constitutes,—

   (a)   a mining area; or

   (b)   a claim area.

   (2) Where an area of land is subject to a reconnaissance licence which, pursuant to section 20 (3), gives to the holder of the licence an exclusive right to carry on reconnaissance operations in that area in respect of any mineral, a mining licence shall not be granted over land in, or which constitutes, the reconnaissance area, in respect of any such mineral, to any person other than the holder of the reconnaissance licence.

   (3) No mining licence over land in, or which constitutes, a prospecting area shall be granted to a person who is not the holder of a prospecting licence over that land.

   (4) Subject to any relevant agreement of a kind referred to in section 10, no mining licence shall be granted to an applicant unless—

   (a)   the programme of proposed mining operations—

      (i)   takes proper account of environmental and safety factors; and

      (ii)   will ensure the most efficient and beneficial use of the mineral resources concerned;

   (b)   the area of land over which the licence is sought is not in excess of the area reasonably required to carry out that programme;

   (c)   the applicant has adequate financial resources, technical competence and experience to carry on effective mining operations;

   (d)   the applicant’s proposals for the employment and training of citizens of Malawi are adequate;

   (e)   the applicant’s proposals with respect to the procurement of goods and services obtainable within Malawi are satisfactory;

   (f)   any relevant option given pursuant to section 31 has been exercised and given effect to or satisfactory arrangements have been made for that purpose; and

   (g)   the applicant is not in default.

   (5) Where an application for the grant of a mining licence is duly made by the holder of an exclusive prospecting licence, the Minister shall not refuse an application for the grant of a mining licence on a ground referred to in subsection (3) (a), (b), (d), (e), (f) or (g) unless he has—

   (a)   given notice to the applicant of his intention to refuse to grant the licence on that ground (giving particulars); and

   (b)   specified in the notice a date before which the applicant may make appropriate proposals to remove the ground for refusal or, as the case may be, remedy the default, or make representations in relation thereto, and the applicant has not, before that date—

   (c)   given notice to the Minister containing proposals or representations which the Minister accepts; or

   (d)   remedied the default.

40.   Section 19 to apply to application for mining licence

   The provisions of section 19 apply in relation to an application for the grant of a mining licence as they apply in relation to an application for the grant of a reconnaissance licence.

41.   Contents of mining licence

   (1) A mining licence shall—

   (a)   state the date of the grant of the licence and the period for which it is granted; and

   (b)   identify the mineral in respect of which it is granted.

   (2) There shall be appended to a mining licence particulars of the holder’s proposals for the employment and training of citizens of Malawi which shall form part of the licence.

   (3) Subject to any relevant agreement of a kind referred to in section 10, there may be included in, or in a statement appended to, a mining licence either or both of the following conditions, namely—

   (a)   a condition that in, or in relation to, the mining area, the holder of the licence will, during a specified period, carry out the programme of mining operations and expend the amounts specified in the licence; or

   (b)   a condition requiring the holder of the licence, in respect of any period and in the manner specified, to submit to the Minister acceptable proposals for the carrying out of a programme of mining operations and the expenditure of amounts in, or in relation to, the mining area during that period.

   (4) There may be included in a mining licence conditions with respect to the processing, disposal or sale of the minerals to be mined.

42.   Term of mining licence

   (1) The term of a mining licence is the period (not exceeding twenty-five years), or the estimated life of the ore body which it is proposed to mine, whichever is the shorter, stated in the licence.

   (2) The term of a mining licence commences on and includes the date of the grant of the licence, as stated in the licence.

43.   Rights of holder of mining licence

   (1) Subject to this Act and the conditions of the licence, a mining licence, while it has effect, confers on the holder of the licence the exclusive right to carry on prospecting and mining operations in the mining area and for the purpose of the exercise of that right the holder may, subject to this Act and the conditions of the licence, in particular—

   (a)   use employees and agents;

   (b)   take all reasonable measures in that area, including the use of necessary equipment and the erection of necessary installations, plant and buildings for mining, and transporting, dressing, treating, smelting or refining any mineral recovered; and

   (c)   dispose of any mineral product recovered, and stack or dump any mineral or waste products in a manner approved by the Minister.

   (2) The holder of a mining licence—

   (a)   shall not intentionally carry on prospecting or mining operations for a mineral unless it is a mineral to which his licence relates; and

   (b)   shall not mine any mineral deposit, particulars of which have not been given pursuant to section 37 (3) (f) in his application, or in a statement accompanying his application, for the grant of the licence, without the approval of the Minister given under subsection (3).

   (3) Where in the exercise of his rights the holder of a mining licence discovers any mineral deposit particulars of which were not given pursuant to section 37 (3) (f) in his application, or in a statement accompanying his application, for the grant of the licence, the holder—

   (a)   shall within the period of thirty days after the discovery give notice and particulars of the mineral deposit and the circumstances in which the discovery was made; and

   (b)   may, in the notice, request the Minister to give his approval to the mining of the mineral deposit in accordance with a programme of mining operations stated in the notice.

   (4) Subject to subsection (5), on a request made pursuant to subsection (3) (b), the Minister—

   (a)   shall, if the mineral deposit consists, or consists primarily, of minerals to which the mining licence relates, and the programme of mining operations stated in the notice containing the request is satisfactory, give his approval to the request; or

   (b)   may, in any other case, give or refuse to give his approval to the request.

   (5) The Minister may, pursuant to subsection (4), by notice served on the holder of the licence, give his approval—

   (a)   to the request as made; or

   (b)   to the request as amended with the agreement of that holder,

unconditionally or subject to such conditions as are agreed by the holder.

   (6) The instrument in which the Minister gives an approval under subsection (5) is deemed to form part of the mining licence concerned.

   (7) Before giving his approval to any request under this section the Minister may, by notice served on the holder of the licence, require the holder to comply with any of the requirements of section 37 (3) as if the request were an application for the grant of a mining licence in respect of the minerals to which the request relates.

44.   Duties of holder of mining licence

   (1) The holder of a mining licence—

   (a)   shall, subject to subsection (2) and section 54, carry on mining and development operations and commence production in accordance with his programme of mining operations;

   (b)   shall, subject to subsection (2), employ and train citizens of Malawi in accordance with the instrument containing proposals in that connexion appended to the licence;

   (c)   shall, subject to subsection (2), expend in, or in relation to, the mining area an amount not less than the amount required by the licence or otherwise to be so expended;

   (d)   shall carry on mining operations in accordance with the requirements of this Act;

   (e)   shall demarcate, and keep demarcated, in the manner prescribed the area of land subject to the licence; and

   (f)   shall give notice to the Minister when he begins to work for profit.

   (2) The Minister may, on application made to him by the holder of a mining licence, limit, reduce, vary or suspend any obligation arising pursuant to subsection (1) (a), (b) or (c) either conditionally or unconditionally.

45.   Use of wasteful practices

   (1) Where the Commissioner considers that the holder of a mining licence is using wasteful mining or treatment practices, he may give notice to the holder accordingly (giving in the notice particulars of the practices) and require the holder to show cause, by notice given to the Commissioner, within such period as the Commissioner shall specify in the notice given to the holder, why he should not cease to use those practices.

   (2) Where, within the period specified in a notice given to the holder of a mining licence pursuant to subsection (1), the holder fails, by notice given to the Commissioner, to satisfy the Commissioner that he is not using the wasteful practices concerned, or that the practices are not wasteful, or that the use of those practices is justified, the Commissioner may give notice to the holder directing him to cease using all of those practices or the practices specified, by such date as is so specified, and the holder shall do so.

46.   Cessation, etc., of production from mine

   (1) The holder of a mining licence shall give notice to the Commissioner—

   (a)   twelve months in advance, if he proposes to cease production from a mine in the mining area concerned;

   (b)   six months in advance, if he proposes to suspend production from any such mine; or

   (c)   three months in advance, if he proposes to curtail production from any such mine,

and shall give in the notice the reason for the cessation, suspension or curtailment.

   (2) Where, for any reason beyond his control, the holder of a mining licence ceases, suspends or curtails production from a mine in the mining area concerned he shall, within fourteen days after the cessation, suspension or curtailment, give notice thereof to the Commissioner.

47.   Power of Commissioner on cessation, etc.

   Where, pursuant to section 46 (1) or (2), notice is given to him, or if he otherwise becomes aware, of any cessation, suspension or curtailment of production from a mine, the Commissioner shall cause the matter concerned to be investigated and thereafter—

   (a)   he shall give his approval, conditionally or unconditionally, to the cessation, suspension or curtailment by notice to the holder of the mining licence; or

   (b)   he shall direct the holder of the mining licence by notice given to the holder to resume full production, or production at such level as is specified in the notice, by such date as is so specified, and the holder shall do so.

48.   Unit development

   (1) This section applies where the Minister determines that, in the interest of the effective recovery of minerals from neighbouring or contiguous mining areas, it is desirable that the holders of mining licences in respect of those areas should coordinate their operations for the recovery of the minerals.

   (2) Where this section applies the Minister may direct the holders of the mining licences concerned to enter into an agreement, within the period specified by the Minister, for or in relation to the co-ordination of their operations for the recovery of minerals, and to lodge the agreement with the Minister forthwith for approval.

   (3) Before giving any direction under subsection (2) the Minister shall afford each holder of a mining licence concerned reasonable opportunity to make representations to him in writing.

Division 5—Renewal and Amendment of Mineral Rights

49.   Application for renewal of reconnaissance licence

   (1) The holder of a reconnaissance licence may, not later than three months before the expiration of the licence, apply for the renewal of the licence in respect of all or any part of the reconnaissance area.

   (2) An application under subsection (1)—

   (a)   shall state the period for which renewal of the licence is sought;

   (b)   shall be accompanied—

      (i)   by a report on reconnaissance operations then carried out; and

      (ii)   by a statement giving particulars of the programme of reconnaissance operations proposed to be carried out in the period of renewal, an estimate of any significant effect which the carrying out of the programme would be likely to have on the environment and on any monument or relic in the area over which renewal of the licence is sought, and an estimate of the cost of carrying out the programme;

   (c)   shall, if renewal of the licence is sought in respect of part only of the reconnaissance area, be accompanied by a plan identifying that part of the reconnaissance area; and

   (d)   shall give particulars of any alteration in the matter shown in the application for the grant of the licence pursuant to section 16 (a) and (d).

   (3) On application duly made for the renewal of a reconnaissance licence, the Minister—

   (a)   may, if he is satisfied that it would be in the public interest to do so, renew the licence, with or without variation of the conditions of the licence, for a period not exceeding twelve months; and

   (b)   if not so satisfied, shall refuse to renew the licence.

50.   Application for renewal of exclusive prospecting licence

   (1) The holder of an exclusive prospecting licence may, not later than three months before the expiration of the licence, apply for the renewal of the licence in respect of an area of land—

   (a)   of such shape as may be prescribed; and

   (b)   which is not greater in extent than half of the prospecting area as at the date of the grant of the licence, unless the Minister otherwise permits.

   (2) An application under subsection (1)—

   (a)   shall state the period for which renewal of the licence is sought;

   (b)   shall be accompanied—

      (i)   by a report on prospecting operations then carried out and the costs incurred in carrying them out; and

      (ii)   by a statement giving particulars of the programme of prospecting operations proposed to be carried out in the period of renewal, an estimate of any significant effect which the carrying out of the programme would be likely to have on the environment and on any monument or relic in the area over which renewal of the licence is sought, and an estimate of the cost of carrying out the programme;

   (c)   shall be accompanied by a plan identifying the area of land in respect of which renewal of the licence is sought; and

   (d)   shall give particulars of any alteration in the matter shown in the application for the grant of the licence pursuant to section 25 (a).

   (3) Subject to subsections (4) and (5), on application duly made for the renewal of an exclusive prospecting licence, the Minister shall renew the licence for a period not exceeding two years.

   (4) The Minister shall refuse to renew an exclusive prospecting licence—

   (a)   if—

      (i)   the applicant is in default;

      (ii)   the programme of prospecting operations proposed to be carried out is not satisfactory; or

      (iii)   the area of land in respect of which renewal of the licence is sought does not meet the requirements of subsection (1) (a) and (b);

   (b)   if the Minister has given to the applicant notice of his intention to refuse to renew the licence—

      (i)   giving in the notice particulars of the ground for the intended refusal; and

      (ii)   stating a date before which the applicant may take appropriate action or make representations in relation to that ground; and

   (c)   if the applicant has not, before that date, remedied the default or, in a notice given to the Minister, made appropriate amendments to his application, or made representations, which in the opinion of the Minister remove the ground for the intended refusal.

   (5) An application under subsection (1) for the renewal of an exclusive prospecting licence may be made on not more than two occasions and, accordingly, the power under subsection (3) may be exercised in relation to an exclusive prospecting licence on not more than two occasions.

   (6) Where a prospecting licence has been renewed pursuant to subsection (3) on two occasions, the Minister—

   (a)   on the request of the holder of the licence; and

   (b)   if he considers it in the public interest to do so,

may, by instrument in writing, extend the term of the licence with effect from the date of expiry of the last period of renewal for such period, and on such conditions, as are specified in the instrument.

51.   Application for renewal of mining licence

   (1) The holder of a mining licence may, not later than twelve months before the expiration of the licence, apply for the renewal of the licence in respect of all or any part of the mining area.

   (2) An application under subsection (1)—

   (a)   shall state the period for which renewal of the licence is sought;

   (b)   shall be accompanied by a statement giving particulars of the programme of mining operations proposed to be carried out in the period of renewal, an estimate of any significant effect which the carrying out of the programme would be likely to have on the environment and on any monument or relic in the area over which renewal of the licence is sought, and an estimate of the cost of carrying out the programme;

   (c)   shall be accompanied by a statement giving details of—

      (i)   the latest proved, estimated or inferred ore reserves;

      (ii)   the capital investment to be made in, and production costs and revenue forecasts in respect of, the period of renewal;

      (iii)   any expected changes in methods of mining and treatment; and

      (iv)   any expected increase or reduction in mining activities and the estimated life of the mine;

   (d)   shall, if renewal of the licence is sought in respect of part only of the mining area, be accompanied by a plan indentifying that part of the mining area; and

   (e)   shall give particulars of any alteration in the matter shown in the application for the grant of the licence pursuant to section 37 (3) (a), (d), (h) (v), (vi) and (vii), (j) and (l).

   (3) Subject to subsection (4), on application duly made for the renewal of a mining licence, the Minister shall renew the licence, with or without variation of the conditions of the licence, for a period not exceeding fifteen years.

   (4) The Minister shall refuse to renew a mining licence—

   (a)   if—

      (i)   the applicant is in default;

      (ii)   the development of the mining area has not proceeded with reasonable diligence;

      (iii)   minerals in reasonable quantities do not remain to be produced; or

      (iv)   the programme of mining operations proposed to be carried out is not satisfactory;

   (b)   if the Minister has given to the applicant notice of his intention to refuse to renew the licence—

      (i)   giving in the notice particulars of the ground for the intended refusal; and

      (ii)   stating a date before which the applicant may take appropriate action or make representations in relation to that ground; and

   (c)   if the applicant has not, before that date, remedied the default or, in a notice given to the Minister, made appropriate amendments to his application, or make representations which, in the opinion of the Minister, remove the ground for the intended refusal.

   (5) In determining whether or not to vary the conditions of a mining licence on renewal, the Minister shall have regard and give effect to any relevant agreement of a kind referred to in section 10.

52.   Notice of disposal of application for renewal of Mineral Right

   (1) The Minister shall give notice to an applicant for the renewal of a reconnaissance licence, an exclusive prospecting licence or a mining licence of his decision on the application and, if he renews the licence, the notice—

   (a)   shall state the period of renewal;

   (b)   shall set out any variation in the conditions of the licence; and

   (c)   shall include a plan of the area of land in respect of which the licence is renewed if that area differs from the area of land subject to the licence immediately before the renewal of the licence.

   (2) Subject to any relevant agreement of a kind referred to in section 10, there may be included in, or in a statement appended to, a notice referred to in subsection (1) either or both of the following conditions, namely—

   (a)   a condition that in, or in relation to, the reconnaissance area, prospecting area or mining area, as the case may be, the holder of the licence concerned will, during a specified period, carry out the programme of reconnaissance, prospecting or mining operations, as the case may be, specified in the notice; or

   (b)   a condition requiring the holder of the licence concerned, in respect of any period and in the manner specified, to submit to the Minister acceptable proposals for the carrying out of a programme of reconnaissance, prospecting or mining operations, as the case may be, and the expenditure of amounts, in or in relation to, the reconnaissance area, the prospecting area or the mining area, as the case may be, during that period.

53.   Licence to have effect pending disposal of application for renewal

   (1) Subject to this section, where an application under this Part for the renewal of a Mineral Right is not finally dealt with before the date on which the Mineral Right would, but for this subsection, cease to have effect, the Mineral Right continues to have effect over the area of land over which renewal of the Mineral Right is sought until notice is given pursuant to section 52 of the refusal to renew or, as the case may be, of the renewal of the Mineral Right.

   (2) The period for which a Mineral Right is renewed commences on and includes the date on which the Mineral Right would have ceased to have effect if an application for the renewal of the Mineral Right had not been made.

   (3) Subsection (1) shall not have effect—

   (a)   to prevent the cancellation under this Act of a Mineral Right; or

   (b)   if an application for the renewal of a Mineral Right is withdrawn.

54.   Amendment of prospecting or mining programme

   (1) The holder of an exclusive prospecting licence or a mining licence may amend his programme of prospecting or mining operations and, subject to subsection (2), the amendment has effect when particulars of the amendment are given in a notice served on the Minister.

   (2) An amendment which substantially alters a programme of prospecting or mining operations does not have effect unless application has been made pursuant to section 36 or 44 (2) to the Minister and the Minister has, under section 36 or 44 (2), agreed to the amendment.

Division 6—Surrender, Cancellation and Suspension of Mineral Rights

55.   Surrender

   (1) The holder of a reconnaissance licence, an exclusive prospecting licence or a mining licence who wishes to surrender all or part of the land subject to the licence shall apply to the Commissioner for a certificate of surrender, in respect of the land, not less than three months before the date on which he wishes the surrender to have effect.

   (2) An application under subsection (1)—

   (a)   shall state the date on which the applicant wishes the surrender to have effect;

   (b)   shall, if part only of the land subject to the licence is to be surrendered, identify the land to be surrendered by the inclusion of a plan thereof;

   (c)   shall give particulars of reconnaissance, prospecting or mining operations carried on in respect of the land to be surrendered; and

   (d)   shall be supported by such records and reports in relation to those operations as the Commissioner may reasonably require.

   (3) Subject to subsections (4) and (5), on application duly made under subsection (1) the Commissioner shall issue a certificate of surrender, either unconditionally or subject to such conditions as are specified in the certificate, in respect of the land to which the application relates.

   (4) Where an application is made under subsection (1) the Commissioner shall consult with the Minister.

   (5) The Commissioner shall not issue a certificate of surrender—

   (a)   to an applicant who is in default;

   (b)   to an applicant who fails to comply with any reasonable requirement of the Commissioner for the purposes of subsection (2) (d); or

   (c)   if the Commissioner is not satisfied that the applicant will leave land to be surrendered and on which reconnaissance, prospecting or mining operations have been carried on in a condition which is safe and which accords with good mining practice.

56.   Effect of certificate of surrender

   (1) Where, pursuant to section 55 (3), a certificate of surrender is issued, the Commissioner—

   (a)   shall, if part only of the land subject to a reconnaissance licence, an exclusive prospecting licence or a mining licence is surrendered, amend the licence accordingly; or

   (b)   shall, in any other case, cancel the licence,

and in either case the Commissioner shall give notice to the applicant for the certificate of surrender of the amendment or, as the case may be, the cancellation, and of the issue of the certificate of surrender.

   (2) Land in respect of which a certificate of surrender is issued shall be treated as having been surrendered with effect from the date on which notice of the surrender is given pursuant to subsection (1) to the applicant for the certificate.

   (3) The surrender of any land does not affect any liability incurred before the date on which the surrender has effect in respect of the land, and any legal proceedings that might have been commenced or continued in respect of the liability against the applicant for the certificate may be commenced or continued against that applicant.

57.   Suspension or cancellation of Mineral Right

   (1) Subject to this section, where the holder of a reconnaissance licence, an exclusive prospecting licence or a mining licence—

   (a)   fails to use in good faith the land subject to the licence for the purpose for which the licence was granted;

   (b)   uses that land for any purpose other than the purpose for which the licence was granted;

   (c)   fails to comply with any requirement of this Act (not being exempted under this Act from doing so) with which he is bound to comply;

   (d)   fails to comply with a condition of the licence (not being exempted under this Act from doing so);

   (e)   fails to comply with a direction lawfully given under this Act or with a condition on which any certificate of surrender is issued or on which any exemption or consent is given under this Act;

   (f)   fails to comply with the conditions, relating to the exercise of his rights under his licence, which are contained in a relevant agreement of a kind referred to in section 10; or

   (g)   fails to pay any amount payable by him under this Act within one month after the amount becomes due,

the Minister may, on that ground, by notice in writing served on the holder of the licence, suspend or cancel the licence.

   (2) The Minister shall not, under subsection (1), suspend or cancel a licence on a ground referred to in that subsection unless—

   (a)   he has, by notice in writing served on the holder of the licence, given not less than thirty days notice of his intention to so suspend or cancel the licence on that ground;

   (b)   he has, in the notice, specified a date before which the holder of the licence may, in writing, submit any matter which he wishes the Minister to consider; and

   (c)   he has taken into account—

      (i)   any action taken by the holder of the licence to remove that ground or to prevent the recurrence of similar grounds; and

      (ii)   any matters submitted to him by the holder of the licence pursuant to paragraph (b).

   (3) The Minister shall not, under subsection (1), suspend or cancel a licence on a ground referred to in paragraph (g), if, before the date specified in a notice referred to in subsection (2), the holder of the licence pays the amount of money concerned together with an amount of interest (if any) which the Minister considers reasonable in all the circumstances of the case.

   (4) The Minister may, by notice in writing served on the holder of a reconnaissance licence, an exclusive prospecting licence or a mining licence, cancel the licence—

   (a)   if the holder (being an individual) is—

      (i)   adjudged bankrupt; or

      (ii)   enters into any agreement or scheme of composition with his creditors or takes advantage of any law for the benefit of debtors; or

   (b)   if, in the case of a holder that is a body corporate, an order is made or a resolution is passed winding up the affairs of the company or corporation, unless the winding up is for the purpose of amalgamation or reconstruction and the Minister has been given notice thereof.

   (5) Where two or more persons constitute the holder of a reconnaissance licence, an exclusive prospecting licence or a mining licence, the Minister shall not, under subsection (4), cancel the licence on the occurrence, in relation to one or some only of the persons constituting the holder, of an event entitling the Minister to so cancel the licence, unless he is satisfied that any other person or persons constituting the holder are unwilling, or would be unable, to carry out the duties and obligations of the holder of the licence.

   (6) On the cancellation of a reconnaissance licence, an exclusive prospecting licence or a mining licence, the rights of the holder of the licence thereunder cease, but the cancellation does not affect any liability incurred before the cancellation and any legal proceedings that might have been commenced or continued against the former holder of the licence may be commenced or continued against him.

Division 7—Transfers and Registration

58.   Records

   (1) The Commissioner shall cause a record to be kept in a Register of every Mineral Right granted and of any dealings with, or affecting, a Mineral Right.

   (2) When a Mineral Right is granted the Commissioner shall cause the name of the person to whom the Mineral Right is granted to be recorded in the Register as the registered holder of the Mineral Right.

59.   Interest in Mineral Right to be created by instrument in writing

   (1) A legal or equitable interest in, or affecting, a Mineral Right, is not capable of being created, transferred, assigned, effected or dealt with, whether directly or indirectly, except by instrument in writing.

   (2) The creation of a legal or equitable interest in, or affecting, a Mineral Right, does not affect the liability of the holder of the Mineral Right for any breach of the conditions of the Mineral Right or of any of the provisions of this Act.

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